Kidney Transplant?

Are you on the way to Kidney Transplant? We got direction boards

Kidney failure, this is something sounds like end. But, it’s no more dead end because of medical supremacy which introduced kidney transplants and saved many lives. Kidney transplant is a journey in its own. It’s a new birth to a person with new kidneys. In this tough journey we tried navigating you through this transplant series.

We know you are on tough ride and we are with you to help you get easy access to all information related to kidney transplant. Here, in this kidney transplants series we have covered important consideration directs.

It includes

“An aware patient is a remedy for self and hence much responsive to treatment.”


Directory of essential documents


Directory of essential documents required for kidney transplantation

          Aadhar card

          Voter ID, 

          Driving Licence,

          Birth Certificate 

          Pan Card.


           Electricity Bill/ Water Bill


          BPL or Ration Card.



          (Marriage certificate for Husband and Wife).







Cadaver Donor

“Cadaver donation is an earthly heaven story which begins with end of one mortal life giving life to another”


Let me introduce you with

“Cadaver donation”


  1. In the process of organ donation when individual make a decision to donate in his lifetime .He or she can fill up a donation form to register and express intent to donate. Once registered, he/she will get donor card. But the card is not legally binding and the final consent to donate rest in family member’s hand


  1. Another way that deceased donation takes place is when a patient is declared brain dead, which means a there has been a permanent damage of all brain functions and the condition is irreversible.


What is process to declare Brain Death?

A person is brain death when kept on artificial life support machine and no longer has any brain functions. 

To make sure that the patient is brain dead, a team of hospital doctors and one civil/government doctor conduct a series of tests twice in a time frame of 4-6 hours. A death certificate is issued after no stimuli are monitored.


What after declaration of Brain Death?

Post declaration of brain death, death certificate is issued; the treating doctors inform the family about the functioning organs that can be donated.

If patient is registered donor then process of convincing the family becomes easier as the donor card advocates the patient’s will to donate organs. However in both the scenarios, whether the patient is a registered donor or not, the final decision lies with the family when they give their consent to donate the organs.

Track Recipient

Person who is in need of organ transplant has to register in the waiting list handled by National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organisation (NOTTO). 

Then registered recipient has to wait until a matching donor comes in place. 

When organ transplant suitable donor is recognized based on medical compatibility, the recipient is informed about the donor and that the transplant may take place.


How Is Recipient Shortlisted?

Live Donor

Live donor

 All you need to know about living donation

 What is Living-donor kidney transplant?

Living-donor kidney transplant is a process in which a kidney from a living donor is removed and placed into a recipient whose kidneys no longer function properly.

Who can be living donors?

What is the process of living donor transplantation?

The first stair in process involves matching kidney type 

It involves tests like (Test should be done from a NABL Lab)

After successful match donor has to fill forms regarding authorisation of organ removal and consent relating it.

Then next step is verification by the registered doctor. They do the interview part for verifying the data given. Once they submit “NO OBJECTION”  the further process can be done by the Registered Hospital.


What is Swap Transplantation?

When a near relative living donor is medically incompatible with the recipient, the pair is permitted to do a swap transplant with another related unmatched donor/recipient pair.

Cadaveric donor

What is cadaveric kidney transplant?

In cadaveric transplant a kidney removed from someone who has died. following with series of tests to  get sure that the donor is brain dead. It means that the fraction of the brain called the brainstem, which controls breathing, has permanently stopped working. A brain-dead patient is only being kept alive on life-support machine. 

What is the process of cadaveric donation?

When the person is brain dead, Hospital staff or Organ Proportionate Organization team will request the member of the family and Authorised possessed dead body owner to donate the donatable organs.

They need to sign forms and consent related to permission of organ donation by relative of deceased who have lawful authority over deceased body. 

How kidneys are stored?

The donated kidney is stored on ice or connected to a machine that provides oxygen and nutrients until the kidney is transplanted into the recipient. 


Kidney compatibility

“Chase for the Best Match”

Kidney transplant with the best match can reap a more successful transplant. 


Let’s explore,

Compatibility criteria’s for kidney transplant 


Blood typing (ABO compatibility)
Blood type of the donor must be compatible with the recipient. If the donor's blood type works with your recipient type, the donor will move to the next blood test (tissue typing). The following blood types are compatible:

Blood type : 

You can donate to these blood types:









Tissue Typing

Tissue typing is also called HLA matching. HLA stands for human leukocyte antigen.. Often it is observed that the better the HLA match, the more successful the transplant will be over a longer period of time. the way chromosomes/DNA are inherited down in a family, a parent and child would have at least a 50 percent chance of matching, siblings match ranges from zero to 100 percent match, and unrelated donors would be less likely to match at all. 

Another reason for HLA matching is to measure antibodies; this check is done for the patient only and is repeated frequently. HLA antibodies can turn to be harmful for transplanted organ and they can increase or decrease over time needs to be checked. 


Serum Crossmatch
A serum crossmatch is a blood test which recipient and the donor will have to do many times. In this test, cells from the donor are mixed with recipient serum. If recipient serum posses antibodies against the donor's cells, the antibodies will bind the donor cells as detected. If antibodies are at high levels, the donor cells will get destroyed. It declares that the transplant cannot take place.


“Hey! You are here, I know you, you are a great fighter. ”

But are you aware of The Transplantation of Human Organs Act, 1994?

Yes the THOA act of 1994 which guides and regulates storage, removal, and transplantation of human organs strictly for therapeutic purpose. It also includes clause for prevention of commercial dealings in human organs and for matters connected there with it. Also it aims to accept brain death and making it possible to use these patients as potential organ donors.

Now you might be wondering whether this Act is applicable in entire India.

At present The Transplantation of Human Organs Act, 1994, is applicable to all over India except state of Jammu & Kashmir .

Also ,

Under this act you can donate heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, intestine, pancreas and tissues being, skin, bones, blood vessels, heart valves, corona, ear drums for therapeutic purpose.

Now you might be thinking about donors , Who all can  donate?

As per the act, Donor can be categories as;

Living Donor : one who is above 18 any and willingly authorizes the removal of any of his organ or tissue.

Deceased Donor : Anyone can become a donor of any organ and/or tissue after his/her death (Brainstem/Cardiac). A person who is in legal possession of the dead body or the free consent of ‘near relative [Section 2(i)]’ is required. 

You might have heard brain death. What is it? And is legal?

According to Section 2(d) of THOA, 1994 defines brain stem death, it is stage at which all functions of the brain stem have permanently ceased but it is subject to certification. Through this act brain death has been legalized in India.

Now tell me who do you think will bear cost of organ donation, retrieval, transportation or preservation? 

This need to borne by the recipient/ institution/ government/ NGO or society, and not at all by donor or donor’s family.

Also, commercial dealings in human organ  is strictly prohibited under THOA  Act. Any sort or any type of commercial dealings in human organ would lead to punishment beneath this Act.

Government Schemes for financial aid

Ayushman Bharat Yojana

Pradhan Mantri National Dialysis Programme

Hemodialysis services:

Guidelines for peritoneal dialysis services:

Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana

Regional schemes for financial aid

Regional schemes

Bhamashah Swasthya Bima Yojana


Tamil Nadu Chief Minister Comprehensive Health Insurance Scheme (CMCHIS)

West Bengal Health Scheme 



Mahatma Jyotirao Phule Jan Arogya Yojana

Category A: Families having Yellow ration card, Antyodaya Anna Yojana ration card (AAY), Annapurna ration card, Orange ration card (annual income up to INR 1 lakh) issued by Civil Supplies Department, Government of Maharashtra for 36 districts of Maharashtra.

Category B: White ration card holder farmer families from 14 agriculturally distraught districts of Maharashtra (Aurangabad, Jalna, Beed, Parbhani, Hingoli, Latur, Nanded, Osmanabad, Amravati, Akola, Buldhana, Washim, Yavatmal, and Wardha).

Category C: 1. Children of Government Orphanages, Students of Government Ashram Shala, female inmates of Government Mahila Ashram & senior citizens of Government old age homes. 2. Journalists & their dependent family members approved by DGIPR 3. Construction workers and their families having live registration with Maharashtra Building & other Construction worker Welfare Board .


Mukhyamantri Amrutam Yojana

Karunya Health Scheme


Telangana State Government Employees and Journalists Health Scheme

Post kidney transplant

Regional schemes

you should avoid LIVE vaccines including:

Also keep away from direct contact with anyone who has received a live vaccine:

Necessary test after transplant

While leaving from hospitals with your new kidney, you will also receive follow up tests and check up schedule. Certain test will be performed to monitor your blood counts, kidney function, liver function, electrolytes, and the medication levels in your blood. 

Some of the tests are.

Precautions should be taken before transplant

  1. Deplete your high cholesterol levels
  2. Control your elevated levels of blood pressure
  3. Diabetic!, then keep it in control.
  4. Keep your diet and lifestyle healthy.
  5. Higher risk of cancer! Then talk to your physician about reducing the risk of cancer.
  6. Avoid transfusion of blood and other blood products.

Transplant Rejection

Every individual is “one of a kind” collection of cells, tissues, and organs. The body machine that recognizes a person’s own cells originality from other cells and tissues is called the immune system. When immune system identifies “foreign” cells and tissues in the body, it attempts to destroy them to protect the body from harm.

Immune system of the person who received transplanted kidney sees it as foreign, and attempts to reject it by producing cells or antibodies that invade and damage the kidney. To prevent the immune system from destructing the transplanted kidney, you will take immunosuppressive (anti-rejection) drugs. 

Types of kidney rejection 

  1. Hyperacute rejection is very rare today as it can be prevented by tissue cross matching. It is caused by pre-formed antibodies concentrating against the donor kidney cells. It happens within minutes to hours of transplantation and totally destroys the kidney transplant. 
  2. Acute rejection can happen at any time, but it is most common to take place from one week to three months after transplant surgery. When treated in initial stages, it is reversible in most cases. The possibility of rejection decreases as the kidney continues to function healthy.

Chronic rejection takes place over time and is owed to scarring within the transplanted kidney. It may occur with variation of time period from months to years after your transplant. If the kidney transplant is rejected, you may be required to receive another transplant in the future. on instances the transplanted kidney must be surgically removed and another transplant takes place .


“They create comfort for to new kidney in your body”

When body’s immune system realizes that the kidney is from someone else, then there are chances it will reject new kidney. To avert this mishap, transplanted patient must take medicines to weaken immune system. These medicines are called Immunosuppressant, or anti-rejection medicines.

Immunosuppressant and other medicines should be taken exactly the way doctor instructed. If you ever fail taking your medicine, contact doctor your immediately. 


Anti-rejection medicines brings along risks and side effects.

One of the major effects of Immunosuppressant is infection. Another general side effect is stomach upset. Immunosuppressants cause side effects but they are very necessary drugs in keeping your new kidney healthy and working.

Regulatory bodies

Now let’s explore about authoritarian stations in the journey of organ transplant

These stations regulate, control and counsel organ transplantation processes.

Station no 1

Advisory community

It consists of administrative expert, who is not below the rank of the Secretary to the State Government for a period of 2 years to aid. Its purpose is to aid and advise the appropriate authority (AA).

Station no 2

Appropriate Authority (AA)

Appropriate Authority’s purpose is to regulate human organs:

Station no 3

Authorization Committee (AC)

One state-level authorization committee should establish constitute in each state. Compositions of hospital-based, state-level authorization committee have been clearly defined. When the transplantation is between other than near relatives or foreigner donor/recipient, then the authority of permission is authorization committee.


Station no 4

Competent authority (CA)

 When transplantation is between near relatives, then authority for permission is competent authority. 


Station no 5

Medical Board (Brain Death Committee)

This board has panel of doctors accountable for brain death certification. If there is non-accessibility of neurologist or neurosurgeon, any surgeon, physician, anaesthetist or intensivist who is listed by medical administrator in-charge of the hospital may declare and certify brain death.

Success rate of transplant

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